Lettuce plants have been substantially impacted when exposed to cadmium.

Morphological alterations observed in the plant incorporated stunted development, lower in dry mass and yellowing of the leaves.

The total soluble protein and total phenolic content material of the plant enhanced whereas there was a decline in total flavonoids.

Superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase activities have been induced beneath cadmium anxiety.

Fourteen genes encoding for ascorbate peroxidase and nineteen genes encoding for superoxide dismutase have been identified in lettuce.


environmental contamination with heavy metals is of concern as plants have the capacity to absorb chemical toxicants facilitating their entry toxic metals into the meals chain. Lettuce have been cultured in 4 nutrient options containing various concentrations of Cd (, three, six, and 9 mmol). The influence of heavy metal on the morphological capabilities, antioxidant properties and antioxidant enzyme activity have been investigated with key concentrate on superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase and catalase enzymes. In silico approaches have been utilized in the study of the genes of these enzymes. Important alterations have been observed in the morphological capabilities of the plant with plants appearing stunted much more spherical and have been yellow in colour. A lower in the dry mass of the plant was also detected. The Translocation element (TF) for cadmium was substantially higher in lettuce. Enhanced antioxidant enzymatic activity suggests that these enzymes are integrally involved in the defense mechanism of the plant to heavy metal anxiety. Also observed was an raise in total soluble protein, and total phenolic content material. Total flavonoid content material was not substantially impacted. Fourteen genes encoding for ascorbate peroxidase and nineteen genes for superoxide dismutase have been identified in lettuce. These enzymes varied from each and every other with regards to the quantity of exons and amino acids present as nicely as their place inside the cell. Plants exhibit many response mechanisms to combat heavy metal contamination.

Keywords and phrases



Superoxide dismutase

Ascorbate peroxidase

Total phenolic

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